The Analysis Of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing In Professional And Amateur Golfers (P2)
The mean and standard deviation of subject characteristics that evaluated in this study are presented in table I and II. There were no significant difference in all characteristic variables (age, height, weight, handicap) that mean subjects in each group has normal distribution at .05 level
The resulting kinematic statistics about swing characteristics were presented in table III. No significant in club head velocity at impact point and swing time from top of backswing to impact point between Professional and amateur golfers, but the means of maximal club head velocity before impact for the professional was significant larger than that for the amateur (p< .05).
Nevertheless, the result of knee joint flexion / extension angle for the lead leg in table IV shown that professional and amateur were significantly (p≤ .05) in ball contact and mid follow thought phase. The knee angular velocity of lead and trail leg were no significant between the groups at any of swing phase.
Note: TA = Take away, MB = Mid backswing, TB = Top of backswing, MD = Mid downswing, IM = Impact point, MF = Mid follow through.
The table VII shown knee external/internal rotation of lead leg are also significantly different in statistical (P< .05) at mid downswing, impact and follow-thought phase.
In this paper, we presented an analysis and comparison about knee joint movement during a golf swing between professional and amateur golfers. Form the results, we found that the left knee have large flexion in top of backswing and gradually decrease until the mid of follow thought phase. For right dominant swing golfer (almost athletes were right dominant) found stress on left knee while flexion in follow through phase, the increasing of rotation affect over stress on knee and lead to injury. So, more flexion/extension angle in amateur golfers bringing them easily to injury than professional. Flexion and extension are importance knee movement as rotation and gliding are less occurred during flexion and extension.
Greater left knee angular velocity was evident in professional group at mid downswing and impact point. Since the left foot remains on the ground during the golf swing, the increased velocity may be indicative of the professional golfers moving their hips more towards the target than the amateur golfers  that lead to difference significant in maximal club head velocity, for best energy transfer and maximal club head speed in downswing, the theory of proximal to distal sequencing  requires several attributes to be evident in a golfer’s kinematic sequence; all segments should accelerate then decelerate before impact (except the club which should peak exactly at impact); the peaking force order should be form lower extremity, pelvis, thorax, arm, club and each peak should be larger and later than the previous one.
Nevertheless, from ours study presented external/internal rotation of knee, the study found that left knee are also significantly between professional and amateur golfer that imply to risk of injury from forces and moments generated in knee joint during downswing and follow thought phase. For right dominant swing golfer found stress on left knee while flexion in follow through phase, the increasing of rotation affect over stress on knee.
Following results of this investigation, the pattern of knee joint movement in professional and amateur golfers are also likely but difference in some variable that cause form skill level or a habit.