Golf-Related Injuries In Australian Amateur Golfers (P2)
A survey questionnaire comprising 53 questions was developed to collect data for the study. Information was collected on age, gender, skill level, level of self-rated golfing importance, play/practice habits, type of warm-up and conditioning habits, golf-related injury in the previous 12 months, tuition, mode of club transport, and age and cost of equipment. For the purpose of this study, a golf-related injury was defined as any condition sustained during the playing/practising of golf that stopped play/practice, impeded normal performance or required medical treatment including over-the-counter medication such as analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories or liniments. As such, an injury was recorded if any of the three criteria were applicable. Golfers who had sustained an injury in the past 12 months were asked further questions, including questions on injury onset, injury mechanism, previous history of injury, and whether treatment was sought after injury. Ethics approval for this study was obtained through Macquarie University. An envelope containing a cover letter stating the purpose of the study, an information/consent form, the survey and a reply-paid envelope was mailed to each member of golf clubs agreeing to participate in the study.
Each factor (e.g. age, skill level, gender, etc.) was first examined in relation to risk of golf-related injury (i.e. injury of any body site) in the univariate analysis. Chi-square testing and contingency tables were used to evaluate the association between golf-related injury status, injured vs. non-injured, and each possible risk factor studied at the univariate level. Factors that appeared to be important in the univariate analyses were further examined in multivariate analysis using logistical regression.11 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the strength of association between each risk factor studied, and injury. An odds ratio of 1 meant no association, i.e. the two groups compared had a similar risk of injury. If a 95% confidence interval did not contain the value of 1, this indicated that there was a statistically significant association between the risk factor studied and injury (less than 1 being a reduction in risk and greater than 1 an increased risk of injury). Statistical analyses in the study were performed using the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA), with a significance level of 5%. To determine how representative the respondents were of the Australian golfing population, national handicap and male-to-female golfer distribution were compared with the data for respondents in this study.2,3