Golf Lottie

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Background and Motivation

For golfers at any level with an interest in improving performance, focus need to be on 3 skills aspects; improving technical, physical and psychological skills.

Besides skills development, focus on; staying healthy and injury free.

Typically golf research is investigated within only one academic field (e.g., biomechanics, motor learning, psychology, engineering) and results are often not considered in a golf performance context.

We take an interdisciplinary approach combining physiological, technical and psychological viewpoints on performance and injury prevention in elite golfers.

Research Aim

General Aim: Investigate physiological, biomechanical and psychological aspects of elite golfers related to golf performance and injury susceptibility.

Specific Research Questions:

  1. What select biomechanical, physiological, and psychological variables influence golf performance and/or injury susceptibility in young elite golfers?
  2. Can intervention strategies based on physiological, psychological and biomechanical skills training improve golf performance and decrease injuries?
  3. How can we translate and implement our biomechanical, physiological and psychological knowledge in golf performance and injury susceptibility into practical applications within the field of golfing making new methods, strategies, and products accessible for the golfing community?


Biomechanical measurements of golf swing kinematics, muscle activity and ball flight parameters. Physiological measurements of strength, power, endurance, and flexibility Psychological measurements of stress and arousal. 9-week intervention, Various Data analyses

Result For Far

Result For Far

STUDY 1: Increased grip force and higher muscle activity in the grip muscles extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and flexor carpi radialis FCR) in all phases of the swing is positively associated with increased shot length: Shot length and finger extension force rs = 0.81, (p<0.01) and grip flexion force (rs=0.78, p<0.01)

These results indicates that both maximal grip force and high muscle activity in the FCR and EDC can be important factors for increasing shot length, and that a highly coordinated pattern between these muscles are useful to maximize shot distance.

Result For Far, Result For FarResult For Far, Result For Far 2

STUDY 2. Multiple regression analysis on 16 independent variables explained 71% of variance in club head speed. The three variables most strongly associated with CHS were: MSR, PAV and TOB. Positive β-coefficients for trunk extension at TOB and PAV indicated that a more upright posture at the top of the backswing and higher arm speeds resulted in increased CHS. A negative β-coefficient for MSR indicated that less separation between the pelvis and thorax were associated with higher CHS.

Diffrences in stress level between a) injured players, b) players that were sick and players that did not suffer from a injury or illness during the study period. For group a and b only pre- injury or pre—illness scores are presented. For group c the overall mean are presented.Diffrences in stress level between the 2 weeks prior to injury/illness and normal weeks.

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