Course Instructor (P16)
Maximal oxygen uptake is the most important measure of aerobic fitness. Another important measure is the ability to sustain exercise at a high percentage of V O 2 Max. To measure V O 2 Max directly, monitor oxygen consumption with a gas analyzer while the individual exercises to exhaustion on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. V O 2 Max is partially dependent upon body weight. The larger the individual, the greater the potential V O 2 Max. A 200 lb man has twice the V O 2 Max as a 100 lb man (perhaps 4 liters versus 2 liters).
- VO2 Max is a measure of milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight that the body metabolizes in one minute of exercise.
- During endurance exercise your muscles use oxygen to burn fat and carbohydrates to produce energy.
- The higher your VO2 Max, the longer and more effortlessly you can perform.
- To increase your VO2Max – train at 85%-95% of your MHR. This will increase the size and strength of the heart, thereby allowing it to pump more blood with less effort on every stroke.
Elite distance runners have been known to have resting heart rates of 30 (BPM) and a VO2 Max of 60-80 milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute of exercise.
Flexibilityis the range of possible movement in a joint and its surrounding muscles.
1. Perform general warm-up before stretching.
2. Use slow deliberate movements.
3. Hold static stretches for 10 – 15 seconds.
4. Never bounce while performing static stretches.
Benefits of stretching:
1. Warms the muscles before strenuous training.
2. Lubricates the joints.
3. Decreases chances of injury.
Frequency and Duration of Stretching
Each stretching session should have a 5-6 minute warm-up and 8-12 minutes of stretching.
Active Stretch – Person stretching supplies the force on the stretch.
Passive Stretch – Partner or device provides the force of the stretch – P.N.F.
Static Stretch – Is a constant stretch in which the end position is held for 10 – 30 seconds.
Ballistic Stretch – Bouncing movement in which the end movement is not held, involves muscular effort. May produce injury to the muscle or connective tissue.
Dynamic Stretch – Flexibilityduring sport specific movements. Ex. – high knees for sprinters.
Static Stretching vs. Dynamic Flexibility
- Atlanta Falcons speed and conditioning consultant Loren Seagrave opines “Stretching makes muscles loose but does nothing to prepare for explosive movements”.
In one study, athletes who stretched statically before a vertical-jump test couldn’t jump as high as athletes who did no warm-up at all. In another, runners who performed static stretches were substantially slower than peers who went out of the blocks cold. Dynamic flexibility exercises raise your body temperature, increase your ranges of motion, and increase sports performance.
Dynamic Flexibility Exercises
Complete the following dynamic mobility exercises every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday before doing strength and power exercises.
1. Windmill – Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart, arms out to the sides and parallel to the ground. Turn your arms in small forward circles, gradually making wider circles until your arms are nearly perpendicular to the ground. Do one set of 20; repeat in the opposite direction.
2. Prone Push-Up – Lie facedown with your hands planted by your shoulders. Slowlypress your upper body up and look toward the ceiling, keeping your hips and lower body flat on the ground. Return to the starting position. Do one set of ten.
3. High Knee – March forward, starting with your left foot. Lift your knee as high as it will go (all the way to your chest, if possible) on each step, keeping your foot parallel with the ground and your back straight. Do one set of 20.
4. Forward Walking Lunge – Step forward with your left foot so that your left thigh is parallel with the ground, then try to touch the ground just inside your left instep with your left elbow, using your right hand for balance if necessary. Return to the standing position and repeat with your right leg. Do one set of eight on each side.
5. Walking Side Lunge – Start with your feet shoulder-width apart. With your left foot, step sideways as far as you can, dropping your hips and bending your knee until your left thigh is parallel with the ground. Your right leg should stay straight. Return to the standing position by continuing to move sideways in the same direction. Do ten with the left side and ten with the right.