Analysis Of Elite Golfers’ Kinematic Sequence In Full And Partial Shots (P3)

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Results

Temporal characteristics

At first, it was examined whether participants were starting the downswing in a proximal-todistal order. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a main effect of segment on time for minimum angular speed [F(2, 84) = 12.86, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted]. There was no interaction between segment and test condition [F(8, 336) = 0.613, P = 0.649, GreenhouseGeisser adjusted] or between segment, test condition and group [F(16, 672) = 0.984, P = 0.449, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted]. Pre-planned comparisons indicated significantly smaller occurrence times for minimum angular speed at pelvis than at upper torso or at the leading hand (P < 0.05). Thus, participants moved pelvis into the downswing before upper torso and hands.

The same analysis was also performed to assess the order in time by which segments attain maximum angular speed. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a main effect of segment [F(2, 84) = 202, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted], and test condition [F(4, 168) = 11.11, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted] on time for maximum angular speed. There was an interaction between segment and test condition [F(8, 336) = 15.12, P < 0.001, GreenhouseGeisser adjusted] but no interaction between segment, test condition and group [F(16, 672) = 0.849, P = 0.550, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted]. Further analysis revealed a temporal order for the moment of maximum angular speed from proximal-to-distal at all test conditions (Fig. 4).

Temporal characteristics

Maximum angular speeds

There was a main effect of segment [F(3, 126) = 3310, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted], and test condition [F(4, 168) = 838, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted] on maximum angular speed. In addition, there was an interaction between segment and test condition [F(12, 504) = 185.1, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted], and among segment, test condition and group [F(24, 1008) = 3.56, P = 0.010, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted]. Pre-planned comparisons indicated a significant increase in maximum angular speed from proximal-to-distal for all test conditions. In addition, maximum angular speed for all three segments amplified with the shot distance in partial shots. Further, magnitudes were larger for full shots compared to partial shots and increased from 5 iron to driver with the exception of hand angular speed magnitude (Fig. 5).

Maximum angular speeds

To examine the speed-summation effect, increment of the maximum segment angular speed from the pelvis to upper torso and from the upper torso to hand were calculated. Repeatedmeasures ANOVA revealed a main effect of segment [F(1, 42) = 1739, P < 0.001, GreenhouseGeisser adjusted], and test condition [F(4, 168) = 243, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted] on increments of maximum angular speed. There was an interaction between segment and test condition [F(4, 168) = 152.2, P < 0.001, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted] and between segment, test condition and group [F(8, 336) = 4.66, P = 0.005, Greenhouse-Geisser adjusted]. Further analysis revealed that the increments of the maximum angular velocity from the upper torso to hand were significantly larger for male professionals than for female amateurs at all shot conditions and significantly larger for male amateurs than for female amateurs at full-swing shots (Fig. 6).

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